How Does the New Silica Standard Apply to Your Construction Operations?
From site preparation and excavation work to concrete cutting and demolition, construction companies need to ensure that their operations comply with the OSHA Respirable Crystalline Silica standard (29 CFR 1926.1153). Updated for the first time in more than 45 years, the standard requires the construction industry to take steps to protect employees from exposure to respirable crystalline silica.
In addition to lowering the permissible exposure limit (PEL) to crystalline silica, the new standard outlines specific employee notification, medical surveillance, training and recordkeeping requirements. While enforcement in construction began in September 2017, OSHA scheduled enforcement to begin in June 2018 for other industry segments, including general industry.
About two million construction employees are exposed to respirable crystalline silica in more than 600,000 workplaces1, according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Long-term overexposure may lead to silicosis, an incurable lung disease, as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and kidney disease.
“Training and educating employees on how to conduct their work safely can help to minimize the risks of silica exposure,” said Travelers Risk Control professional Torey McLaren, an Industrial Hygiene Specialist. “Keep in mind that this is an ongoing process.”
Here are some steps that construction companies can take to comply with the standard.
1. Identify specific work tasks and operations where potential silica exposure may occur. Silica may be generated during work with mined materials, including soil, sand, rock, stone or granite. Construction companies should identify any job task or operation where silica particles may become airborne and inhaled. Specific construction activities that may generate silica include:
- Saw cutting and jack hammering of concrete or asphalt,
- Cutting and shaping stone,
- Excavation work,
- Site preparation,
- Dry sweeping, and
- Cleaning with compressed air.
2. Evaluate these exposures by use of Table 1, objective data, or air sampling. OSHA has developed a table for construction work, listing specific tasks and their required engineering and work practice control methods and respiratory protection procedures. If there are potential silica exposures for your construction operations, air sampling may be required. For example, if your construction site is not following the work practice controls specified in OSHA’s Table 1, or if you are performing tasks not covered by Table 1, then you are required to conduct air sampling. Sampling may also be required if you don’t have any other source of objective data or prior sample data.
About the Industrial Hygiene Lab
To help with sampling strategies and complying with the new standard, Travelers offers customers access to technical bulletins, webinar replays and video vignettes, the Pump Loan Plus program, and Industrial Hygiene consulting.
3. Develop an exposure control plan for the identified tasks or operations. Under the silica standard, the permissible exposure limit has been lowered to 0.05 mg/m3, with an action level (AL) of 0.025 mg/m3. If you identify exposure levels above these limits during sampling, develop an exposure control plan. Review work tasks and discuss with employees who can provide valuable insight into ways to reduce exposures, such as the engineering and administrative controls discussed below.
4. Implement engineering/administrative controls to minimize exposures as needed. Engineering controls should be considered first and can include local exhaust ventilation dust suppression systems, such as misters as well as vacuums integrated into some power tools by manufacturers. Administrative controls include scheduling maintenance and high exposure operations when few employees are present, using job rotation schedules, and using work-rest schedules that limit the amount of time an employee is exposed to a hazard.
5. Determine the need for respiratory protection and/or a medical surveillance program based on exposure evaluation results. Respiratory protection may be necessary when engineering or work practice controls are not effective in minimizing employees’ exposure to respirable crystalline silica. For construction, required respiratory protection is defined by tasks listed in Table 1. If a task is not listed in Table 1, requirements are the same as general industry. General industry requires respiratory protection any time the PEL is exceeded.
6. Develop and provide employee training. Review and update your hazard communication training program to include silica-specific information, including tasks with potential exposure to silica. Construction companies are required to provide training on how to reduce risk of exposure, and to notify employees of results and corrective actions, if necessary. Companies must also maintain records of exposures and medical records if applicable.
More Prepare & Prevent
Construction companies can help protect workers by hiring candidates with a focus on safety and giving ongoing safety training.
Pre-construction surveys and project documentation are some items to keep in mind before a project. Follow our pre-construction checklist for more tips.